series of successive redefinitions of the parties' relationship.1 english essay writers And because de-escalation typically depends on actions taken by both partisans and intermediaries, these actions must be coordinated if they are to succeed.2. Third, they can set limits on conflict escalation and intervene to enforce those limits.41 International governmental organizations, for example, can help to ensure that adversaries do not use overly destructive means to achieve their goals. The media, including radio and television, also plays an important role. These moves are continued whether or not there is immediate reciprocity.48 If the opponent does respond positively, the first party can make a second concession, which sets a "peace spiral" in motion. Adversaries have limited amounts of manpower and strategic materials that they can invest in waging conflict. Escalation training that exposes disputants to the dangers of violence and escalation and outlines de-escalation strategies might also be helpful. 44 Kriesberg, Constructive Conflicts, 199.
When they are ready, the adversaries can engage in joint, problem-solving workshops facilitated by intermediaries. De-escalation can be directed away from intense animosity or toward increased cooperation.11 The shift from escalation to de-escalation is not a single event, but rather a process that advances in a broad step-by-step fashion and is produced by pressures that build over time.12 This process. 48 Kriesberg, Constructive Conflicts, 211. If the first initiative is ignored, on the other hand, it can be followed by a second or even a third attempt. By, michelle Maiese, january 2004, as conflict escalates, adversaries begin to make greater threats and impose harsher negative sanctions. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. 16QUNwj 20 Christopher Mitchell, "The Anatomy of De-escalation in Conflict Resolution: Dynamics, Process and Structure, Jeong, Ho-Won,. While contact that occurs under unfavorable conditions of suspicion and unequal power can stir up tensions and reinforce stereotypes, friendly contact in the context of equal status and cooperation can improve attitudes.53 Working together on these shared goals can override group differences and enhance the. Hostilities may become institutionalized, making de-escalation more difficult in the future. Once made and rejected, a de-escalation proposal might become tainted. Educational, cultural and scientific exchanges, for example, can expand favorable contact between people of different groups and nations and promote mutual respect. Another interesting aspect that Earth science is looking at is the geophysical construction of the planet, such as tectonic plates and related activities, volcanoes and other associated geological phenomena.
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